Топики

Fascism

 

Fascism

The word «fascism» comes from the Latin fasces, and means a bundle of rods with an axe in it. In economics, fascism is viewed upon as a third way between free trade capitalism and communism. Private property and the profit motive are quite welcome within fascist economy if they do not conflict with the interests of the state.

The classical expample of fascism in economics was Italy in the days of Mussolini, where it grew out of syndicalism and nationalism. The syndicalists supposed that economy ought to be governed by groups representing various industries. The nationalists put forward the idea of national struggle. Italy was a proletarian nation suffering from the unfavourable results of World War I, they said, and to win a greater share of the world's wealth, all of Italy's classes must unite. Mussolini was a syndicalist who turned nationalist during World War I.

In Mussolini's Corporative State all economic decisions were made by councils composed of workers and employers who represented different trades, and who were supposed to resolve all the conflicts between classes and industries. These counsels aimed at preventing the class struggle from undermining the national struggle. All the economic life was supervised by the government.

After Mussolini became dictator in 1925, he began a program of massive deficit spending, public works, and eventually, militarism.

Preparing for the coming war, Mussolini extensively used protectionist measures to turn the economy toward economic self-sufficiency. Government bureaus had to purchase Italian products only, and increased tariffs on imports were introduced in 1931, along with high import quotas, and embargo on industrial goods.

 

Eventually profit motive was being reduced after Mussolini eliminated the ability of business to make independent decisions. The government now controlled all prices and wages, it regulated agriculture by dictating crops and breaking up farms. Banking system was also controlled to an extraordinary extend.

Later, in the 30s and early 40s Hitler's nazism shared many features with Italian fascism, including the syndicalist front. Nazism, too, featured complete government control of industry, agriculture, finance, and investment.

As World War II came closer, the signs of fascism's failure in Italy were visible: private consumption had fallen to the level below that of 1929s, and the industrial production between 1929 and 1939 was much lower than the rates for other Western European countries. Labour productivity was low and production costs were uncompetitive. The fault lay in the shift of economic decision-making from entrepreneurs to government bureaucrats, and in the allocation of resources by government decisions rather than by free markets. Mussolini designed his system to satisfy the needs of the state, not of consumers. In the end it turned out that neither was satisfied.

Слова и выражения (Vocabulary):

 

ability

 способность, возможность

allocation

 распределение, размещение

axe

 топор

bundle

 связка

bureau

 бюро

compose

 составлять

council

 совет

dictator

 диктатор

eliminate

 уничтожать, упразднять

extensively

 экстенсивно, активно

extraordinary

 экстраординарный, сверхъестественный

fascism

 фашизм

fault

 ошибка, недостаток

feature

 являть собой, рисовать

militarism

 милитаризм

nationalism

 национализм

nazism

 нацизм

proletarian

 пролетарский

purchase

 приобретать

reduce

 сокращать

resolve

 разрешать, решать

rod

 прут

satisfy

 удовлетворять

shift

 сдвиг

suffer

 страдать

supervise

 осуществлять надсмотр

syndicalism

 синдикализм

undermine

 подрывать

be welcome

 быть желательным

World War I

 Первая мировая война

turn nationalist

 превратиться в националиста

Corporative State

 корпоративное государство

aim at preventing

 иметь своей целью предотвращение

class struggle

 классовая борьба

massive deficit spending

 значительные по объему расходы, создающие бюджетный дефицит

public works

 гражданские работы

protectionist measures

 протекционистские меры

self- sufficiency

 самодостаточность

syndicalist front

 синдикалистский фронт

turn out

 оказываться

 

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